INTRODUCTION TO SDLC
- Problem recognition and definition
- Information gathering e.g.
- Requirement specification for the new system
- System design
- System construction
- System implementation
- System review and maintenance
1. Problem recognition and definition
In this stage, we will seek to answer two questions
- Whether the proposed project is worthy pursuing
- If the project is worthy looking at
Once the business-planning process determines the need for a new system, there are four steps to defining the system:
- Define the system’s goals and scope (The scope of the project - Project scope is the part of project planning that involves determining and documenting a list of specific project goals, deliverables, features, functions, tasks, deadlines, and ultimately costs) In other words, it is what needs to be achieved and the work that must be done to deliver a project. We are therefore required to define project constraints, budget and schedule. Will you use it to facilitate collaboration, aid in decision-making, problem-solving, or project management, or help the organization gain a competitive advantage?
- Assess the feasibility of the project using four criteria: cost, schedule, technical, and organizational.
- Form a project team that includes systems analysts and users.
- Prepare a project plan.
Assessing the feasibility of the project
Types of feasibility
Operational feasibility - Whether the problem can be solved in the user’s environment with existing and proposed system workings? It establishes the extent to which the users are comfortable or happy with the proposed or the new system.
Technical feasibility - Whether the problem be solved using existing technology and resources available?
Schedule feasibility – This establishes whether the development of the proposed system will be accomplished within the available time.
Some of the methods used to collect data include:
- Study available documents
- Automated methods
1. Studying available documentation
- The interviewee must be informed in good time and the topic of discussion communicated accordingly to allow for adequate preparation
- Avoid personal biases in your questions and perspectives
- Be careful about body language and proxemics. Proxemics refers to things like sitting arrangements, body closeness and how people react when their private distance is violated. This may influence the results of an interview.
- Easy correction of speech: Any misunderstanding and mistake can be rectified easily in an interview. Questions can be rephrase during the interview process
- Development of relationship: Relation between the interviewer and the interviewee can be developed through an interview. It increases mutual understanding and cooperation between the parties.
- Selection of suitable candidate: Suitable candidates can be selected through interview because the interviewer can know a lot about the candidate by this process
- Sufficient information: Sufficient information can be collected through the interview process. Because the interviewer can ask any question to the interviewee.
- Less costly: It is less costly than other process of communication. It is very simple, prompt and low cost method of communication.
- In depth analysis: Through planned interviews detailed information can be collected which enables proper analysis of a problem. Abstract factors like attitudes, feelings, opinion etc. Can be successfully evaluated or analyzed through interviews.
- Time consuming: Time constraint is one of the major limitations of the interview process. Preparation for the interview, taking interviews and interpretation of the responses required much time, which makes the interview method time consuming.
- Biases of interviewer: Always there is a possibility that the interview process can be influenced by the biases of the interviewer.
- Inefficiency of the interviewer: Interview is a systematic process of data collection. The success of an interview depends on the efficiency of the interviewer. This inefficiency of an interviewer can lead to misleading results.
- Large amounts of information can be collected from a large number of people in a short period of time and in a relatively cost effective way.
- Can be analyzed more 'scientifically' and objectively than other forms of research.
- Because they are conducted privately, more sincere responses are possible.
- Good questionnaires are difficult to prepare.
- This method is argued to be inadequate to understand some forms of information and questions - i.e. changes of emotions, behaviour, feelings, how questions are rephrased etc.
- There is no way to tell how truthful a respondent is being.
- Good for explaining meaning and content also inner understanding
- It's time consuming
- Presence of the observer may alter the person’s observed behaviour thus leading to inaccuracy
5. Automated Methods
Preparing and presenting the fact finding report
- Cover letter addressed to the management and IT task force written by the person who gathered the facts
- Title page which includes the name of the project, name of analyst and the date the proposal is submitted.
- Table of contents
- Executive summary which provides a snapshot of how the new system is to be implemented
- Outlines the system study which provides information about all the methods used in the study and who and what was studied.
- Detailed results of the study which provide details of what the system analyst has found out about the system such as problems, constraints and opportunities that call for an alternative
- Summary which is a brief statement that mirrors the contents of the report. It also stresses the project’s importance