BEGINNING OF ANIMAL DOMESTICATION
- Animal domestication started about 10,000 years ago in some regions of earliest civilizations like south-west Asia, Greece, Crete, Algeria, Egypt, North Africa, Sahara, the Lake Turkana region and southern Africa
- Animal domestication started before crop growing. Development of both crop growing and animal domestication were by chance
- Animal domestication was gradual. While hunting and fetching water, man established close ties with, caught, took care of and bred the animals in captivity until they were tamed
- Domestic animals like dogs, goats, sheep, cattle and camels were useful in various ways, e.g. provision of food and protection. The dog, which was the first animal to be domesticated, assisted in hunting, driving away dangerous wild animals and herding livestock
- Goats may first have been domesticated in south-west Asia and then Africa around 5000 BC in areas such as Tell Abu Hureyra, Tepe Ali Kosh and De Luren Khuzestan in southwest Iran, Iraq, Upper Tigris valley, Turkey, southern Jordan, Egypt, Sudan and Libya, after which it spread to other parts of Asia, and to Europe. Various species of the goat developed.
- Sheep were first domesticated at Zawi Chemi Shanid in Iraq around 9000 BC and then in Syria, Egypt, the Sahara region, West Africa and the Indus and Yellow River valleys. It spread to Europe from Turkey in 7000BC. There are various breeds of sheep in the world today
- Cattle were first domesticated in southwest Asia around 5800 BC in such places as Catal Huyuk in Turkey, Iraq and Iran, from where it spread to Ethiopia and North Africa. They are of two types, i.e. the short horned and the long horned
- The camel originated from North America, then it spread to Asia and South America. It was first domesticated in Arabia in 3000 BC. It is often referred to as the “ship of the desert” as it was commonly used in arid areas. There are two types of the camel. These are:
- The one humped, found in the Middle East, Northern China and Africa
- The two humped, found in central Asia
- Regular food supply e.g. meat and milk.
- Clothing, beddings and other products from animal skins.
- Hooves and horns, which were used as containers, communication and musical instruments.
- Animal bones for making tools, ornaments, needles and weapons.
- Camels, donkeys and horses enabled man to travel longer distances faster with heavier loads.
- Increased crop yields as oxen and donkeys were used for ploughing.
- Animals provided manure for the crop farms.
- Use of the dog for protection from dangerous animals.
- Man now led a more settled life as hunting was now limited since the animals he needed for food were at his doorstep.
- Man now lived in families and villages.
- Domestication of plants and animals occurred in the Neolithic period, although animal domestication came first.
THE BEGINNING OF AGRICULTURE
- Agriculture is cultivation of crops to satisfy human needs.
- Increased human population, for which the natural environment could not provide adequate food
- Climatic changes, which hindered pure reliance on nature for livelihood
- Competition for food among and between people and animals
- Calamities such as floods and bushfires, which cleared vegetation for wild animals
- The Diffusion theory, which states that crop growing and animal keeping developed in south-west Asia and then spread to the rest of the world
- That which states that agriculture must have developed independently in various parts of the world.
Crop growing must have developed in stages as follows:
- Man may have accidentally selected plants he considered more nutritious and tasted better than or were superior to others.
- It was discovered that wild crops germinated and grew along river valleys, where water and fertile soil were ample.
- Crops grew faster as other plants and bushes were cut and weeded out.
- Farmers made and used tools to clear bush, dig and plant the seed, which was quite involving.
- The crops had to be harvested and then stored in the homes.
- Various crops adapted to diverse environmental conditions and gradually spread to other areas.
- In the Fertile Crescent (south-west Asia), which comprises present-day Iraq, Turkey, Lebanon and parts of Iran and Syria, wheat and Barley were the first crops grown.
- In Asia and Africa, particularly the Ganges valley in India, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Niger, diverse rice varieties were domesticated
- In tropical America i.e. Central America, southern America and Mexico, yams and maize were the first crops grown.
- In Africa, particularly Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Algeria, West Africa and the Nile Valley in Egypt, the Guinea yam and varieties of rice, millet and sorghum were domesticated
- Wheat grew wildly in different types. It was first harvested as Brittle Wheat: a type that was gradually replaced by „emmer‟ wheat, which then spread from the Mesopotamian plains by 6000 BC and reached Egypt by 3000 BC and to the Mediterranean region, central Asia, India and southern Europe.
- Barley was widely grown in Mureybat on the Euphratese in Syria from 700-600 BC. It then spread to Ali Kosh in Iran, Jericho in Jordan and Fayum in Egypt. By about 2000 BC, cultivation of barley had spread to India and China.
- Yams may have been the first of the Root and tuber crops to be domesticated. They were grown in Southeast Asia by 9000 BC. The Brazilians grew a different variety. Africa grew its own variety i.e. the White Guinea yam, which was a wild variety found in the Ivory Coast.
- Maize was first grown around 5000 BC at Tehuacan in Mexico from where it spread to South America, Africa, Asia and Europe. It was introduced by the Portuguese in Africa, where it became a staple food unlike America and Europe where it is largely a fodder crop.
- Rice originated from Thailand around 3500 BC, from where its production spread to India, Europe and Japan. In Asia, Oryza Glaterima rice is widely cultivated. The African variety of rice was grown along the upper Niger around 1500 BC, from where it spread to other areas within the region.
- Bulrush millet was first grown at Hoggat in southern Algeria around 6000 BC. By 1500 BC, sorghum was grown around the Sudan, the area between the Nile and Lake Chad and other parts of West Africa, Ethiopia and east Africa (from where finger millet originated).
In Mesopotamia, which today is part of Iraq, food production began around 8000 BC having been introduced by settlers from the Iranian plateau. Jarmo in the Kurdish foothills represents the earliest stage of Agriculture. As men went hunting and gathering, the women they left behind may have experimented with wild grasses that grew around their compound until they found out and grew the edible plants, paving the way for organized agriculture.
1. (a) Identify:
- The animals domesticated in Mesopotamia.
- Crops grown in Mesopotamia.
- Two methods of irrigations used in Mesopotamia.
- The farm implements that were used in Mesopotamia.
2. Analyse farming activities in Mesopotamia (Explain how farming activities were carried out in Mesopotamia).
- Use of water from the Tigris and Euphratese for irrigation. At first, Sumer in southern Mesopotamia was unsuitable for farming as it had very little rain. But the Sumerians skilfully dug canals to channel water from the two rivers to summer, boosted by the Shadoof or Bucket method of irrigation
- The rich fertile silt deposited on the lower Tigris and Euphratese river valleys and soils in the region, which were mostly fertile.
- Good leadership by, among others, Sargon the great and Hamurabi the lawgiver.
- Invention and use of farming implements like the ox-drawn plough and the seed-drill in place of digging sticks and stone hoes fastened with sticky earth onto a short wooden handle for tilling the land as well as baked clay sickles, baskets and pots in reaping and storing the harvest.
- The fact that the region was endowed with indigenous crops and animals like wheat, dates, figs, olives, vines, palms, onions, melons, cucumber, ducks, pigs, gees, horses, cattle, sheep, goats, a variety of vegetables and a variety of grains.
- Heavy rains in the Zaggiroes mountains, which caused the much needed floods on the Euphratese and Tigris river valleys.
- Reclamation of more land for agricultural purposes by skilfully draining and directing water through dykes, ditches and canals from swampy land to the dry land, making both cultivable.
- The Sumerian civilization, which was thriving in Mesopotamia by around 3000 BC comprised twelve separate city states. Farming, fishing, crafts making and keeping of livestock were most practised.
- The city states were surrounded with walls, outside of which were farming fields, on which the urban people depended.
- Most land was in the form of large estates belonging either to the rulers or to the wealthy classes. The workers were given small plots and seeds, farm implements and livestock in return for labour and surplus produce to the land owners.
- Wheeled carts were used to transport farm produce to various storage points.
- Goats and cattle provided milk while sheep supplied wool: Mesopotamia‟s main textile fabric.
- City-states often fought over water rights
- Invention of writing (Cuneiform) and Arithmetic for better farming management, e.g. accounts on rents paid by Tenant farmers, the size of the herds, etc.
- Increased food production.
- Population increase, particularly along river valleys, arising from healthy feeding.
- Emergence of urban centres like Uruk, Eridu, Nippur, Kish and Babylon.
- Development and expansion of trade due to surplus agricultural produce.
- Specialization in crafts, religion and other non-food producing endeavours, as not all could engage in farming.
- Invention and use of the wheel, which improved transport and pottery.
- Development of science and mathematics, particularly in measurement of time, distance and area.
- Invention and improvement of farming tools such as the plough, which eased and increased agriculture. For example, it reduced the number of people needed to cultivate a large piece of land.
- Development in astronomy, arising from the need to predict rains, floods and eclipses, which led to the invention of the calendar.
- Development of law:
- Discovery and use of metals to make farm tools, which revolutionized agriculture. Bronze tools were made and used in Mesopotamia as early as 3000BC.
- Advances in religious practices. Mesopotamians had many gods, most of who were connected to agriculture, e.g. Ninurta the god of floods.
- Compilation of cords of law to limit conflict in their civilization, e.g. Hamurabi‟s law.
CHAPTER 10: Development Of Transport And Communication
CHAPTER 16: European Invasion Of Africa And The Process Of Colonization
CHAPTER 31: PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA
Chapter 3: Development Of Agriculture And Animal Domestication
CHAPTER 9: TRADE
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
CHAPTER TWO: EARLY MAN
EARLY AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA
EARLY AGRICULTURE IN ASIA
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT FORM 1 TOPICS