United States of America
- This is the third largest nation in the world after Russia and Canada respectively
- Industrialization of the USA began in the mid 19th c and she had emerged as a major industrial power by mid 20th c. USA remains the only superpower in the world after collapse of USSR in 1990.
Factors influencing the industrialization of USA.
- Abundance of natural resources like iron ore, oil from the oilfields of Texas, copper and coal. There were also agricultural raw materials like cotton, corn, wheat and Tobacco plus forest resources which boosted industrial development.
- Good transport and communication. The USA government developed transport systems in the country. For example railway (opened in 1869), roads, and water transport. Electronic communication was also developed.
- Availability of both skilled and unskilled labour some of which came from the immigrant population. The American system of education gave room for acquisition of necessary skills.
- There were scientific and technological advances to support the industrial process especially by the Europeans who moved to USA. The education system also promoted research which further boosted industrialization.
- Foreign investments in the 19th c from countries like Britain led to industrial development.
- The high American population was a source of domestic market for her industrial products. Her high quality products were also on high demand outside America.
- Enterprising citizens. The Americans were ready to venture into business. Some had good managerial skills. For example John Rockfeller ventured in the petroleum sector, Andrew Carnegie and James Hill in the steel and iron industry. Henry Ford in the mass production of cars.
- Long periods of political stability since her independence assured investors of security and thus paving way for industrialization.
- Availability of sources of energy like coal, petroleum, gas and HEP and later Atomic energy.
- The capitalism policy encouraged both local and external investors since it allowed private ownership of property.
- Government support. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1933-1945) and Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) provided capital to develop transport systems.
- The 1st and 2nd World wars. During the war period, European nations were unable to produce goods since they were busy fighting. This enabled USA to expand her market as she initially kept away from the war.
- Establishment of the customs union, Zollverein. This linked the german states and removed trade barriers hence leading to free trade and economic growth in Germany. Transportation of goods and communication was eased by the customs union.
- Germany was rich in coal which was an important source of energy for the industries. HEP and Atomic energy was also produced o boost industrialization.
- Abundance of natural resources like water and minerals like iron ore from Alsace and Lorraine, coal, oil and copper which were vital industrial raw materials.
- The large Germany population was a source of both skilled and unskilled labour. The system of education also ensured availability of skilled labourers.
- There was also a large domestic market from the large population. Her products were also on high demand from the rest of Europe. For example, her vehicles (Volkswagen, BMW and Mercedes Benz)
- Existence of good transport and communication networks of roads, railway and waterways. This ensured easy transportation of raw materials to factories and finished goods from industries to the market.
- Existence of long periods of political instability in Germany after unification in 1871 under the leadership of Otto Von Bismarck which ensured investor security.
- The availability of finance for industrial growth from the rich german citizens and from loans granted by USA in 1924. The Marshal Plan after 1945 was another source of finance.
- The existence of a hard working and enterprising people in Germany. For example, Krupp Meyer Thyssen who promoted the development of industries in steel. Egells and Harkoft Borsig made great contributions in the field of machinery.
- German’s industrialization was however interrupted during the two world war periods. At the end of world war Germany was able to recover and progress in industrial development.
Factors which enabled Germany to recover after world war two.
- West Germany still had a high population which was an important resource in terms of labour. There were also a high number of immigrants from European countries like Turkey and Italy.
- The USA marshal Plan ensured that the required finance was available to assist her industries.
- Germany industries were not totally destroyed by the two wars.
- Industrial \unrests was not very common in Germany, and therefore, industrialization was not interrupted.
- Good leadership accelerated the industrialization process. Between 1949 and 1955, Germany chancellor Konrad Adenaur proved to be an able leader who encouraged industrial growth.
Factors that enabled Japan to emerge as an industrial power.
- She had enterprising citizens who were hard working and determined. They are always ready to undertake risks in business. The national motto ‘just in time’ confirms their efficiency.
- The Long period of political stability especially after World War II has promoted industrialization.
- The role played by America in financing the industrialization process in Japan as a means of preventing her from falling under the influence of communists after world war II. This enabled Japan to build many industries in the post war period.
- Japan is a country whose industrial growth has never been slowed down by industrial disputes. The Japanese work for life. When one is employed in Japan, they put the interest of the employer first. This therefore reduces industrial disputes.
- The Japanese goods are always of high quality and affordable. For example the vehicles, thus ensuring a steady market both local and international.
- The Japanese education system is technically oriented ensuring production of skilled. Unskilled manpower has been made availability thanks to the abolition of the policy of feudalism that enabled labourers to move from the farms to the industries.
- Japan has a well developed transport and communication network of railway, roads, water transport, large airports and electric trains. This has enabled improved transportation of raw materials to factories and manufactured goods to markets
- Existence of an industrial base. Before World War II, Japan had already attained a certain level of industrial development. Many industries were not completely destroyed during the war period. The industries were repaired after the war.
- Japan has a highly developed renewable hydro-electric power given the existence of large and fast flowing rivers.
- The government invited expatriates and deployed them to local industries. In 1870, a group of 100 Japanese were sent out to western European factories to learn.
- Geographical factors. The country’s terrain did not favour agriculture thus making industrialization the best option to improve her economy.
- The open investment policy encouraged the west to invest in her industrialization. The government encouraged foreign industrialists to plough back their capital and resources into the Japanese economy.
Industrialization in the third world countries.
Reasons why many developing countries have lagged behind in industrialization.
- Long periods of colonization relegated them to the role of suppliers of raw materials and as markets for industrial goods from developed nations at the expense of their own industries.
- Poor transport and communication systems has undermined industrialization since raw materials and manufactured goods cannot be transported to their various destinations.
- Inadequate capital. Most of the third world countries have poor agricultural-based economies which cannot support meaningful industrialization.
- Poor technology. The use of appropriate technology in third world countries is lagging behind and this hampers exploitation of natural resources and manufacturing of goods.
- Many developing countries face stiff completion from the industrialized nations that produce high quality products and have an advanced marketing system for their goods.
- High levels of illiteracy among majority of the population in developing countries leads to lack of technical and scientific skills necessary for industrial take –off.
- The protectionist policies adopted by developing countries have discouraged private enterprises and foreign investment. Policies like nationalization and imposition of import duties discourage investors in many countries.
- High levels of poverty in third world countries mean low domestic market. Governments also spent most of their resources to provide for the basic needs of their citizens at the expense of industrialization.
- Many third world countries have been faced with political instability problem. This has hampered industrialization. There are numerous civil wars or cross-border conflicts in many countries.
- Third world countries often poor disaster management strategies. The devastating effects of natural disasters affect industrialization.
- Lack of skilled personnel. Many well trained people migrate to the developed nations in search of well paying jobs.
- Petroleum and petrochemical industries. She has petrochemical complexes based in the states of Balica, Rio Grande, Dosul and Sao Paulo.
- Motor vehicle industry. The country has earned a lot of forex through the massive manufacture and sale of motor vehicles since 1997.
- Aircraft and aerospace industry. The Brazilian Space Agency (AEB) and the National Institute of Space Research (NPE) have been involved in the Brazilian space programme which comprises the construction of satellites and launching of space craft.
- Electricity generation industry. The main source of Brazilian electric energy is water. In 1996, 92 % of all her electricity power generation was HEP.
Factors that have facilitated industrialization in Brazil.
- Availability of Cheap and both skilled and unskilled labour from the country’s large population especially after the abolition of slave trade.
- Plentiful natural resources. For example mineral supplies like gold, coal, iron ore, uranium, manganese etc, agricultural raw materials like coffee, sugarcane, cocoa and maize and forest resources are a great boost to industrialization
- Availability of hydro-electricity as early as 1905 to boost industrialization. Coal is also available.
- Foreign capital. There was heavy influx of foreign capital from countries such as the USA, Canada, Britain, Portugal and France which led to establishment of industries in the country.
- Improved transport and communication. Railway lines were constructed in most parts of Brazil thus opening the interior areas for the exploitation of natural resources and transportation of manufactured goods.
- Good economic policies adopted by President Getulio Vargas (1930-1945) have contributed to industrialization in Brazil. He encouraged the development of transport and communication. He encouraged the harnessing of HEP. He Provided loans and subsidies to certain industries. Adopted protectionist policies of imposing heavy duties on imports. He encouraged exploitation of oil.
- Development of banking in major Brazilian cities such as Manaus, Salvador, Brasilia and Sao Paulo facilitated provision of loans to individuals who wanted to venture in business.
- Large Internal and external markets. Increased Trade between Brazil and other countries has led to growth of external market to supplement the available market locally.
- The World War II which made it hard for her to import goods from Europe thus compelling her to manufacture her own goods.
Obstacles to industrialization in Brazil.
- High levels of poverty (more than 40% of the population is poor) meaning low purchasing power. Governments also spent most of their resources to subsidize the basic needs of their citizens at the expense of industrialization.
- Inability to fully exploit her natural resources especially those found in low population zones like the south where labour for exploitation is lacking.
- Huge foreign debt. A lot of money is being used to service these debts at the expense of industrialization.
- Poor technology. The use of appropriate technology for exploitation of natural resources and manufacturing of goods is still lagging behind in Brazil.
- Stiff completion from the industrialized nations like USA and Western Europe that produce high quality products and have an advanced marketing system for their goods.
- The resources of Brazil are monopolized by the multinational companies that are based there. The government therefore has no freedom to exploit them for use in industries.
Factors influencing industrialization in South Africa.
- The country is endowed with mineral resources such as gold, diamonds. Iron etc.
- Availability of Cheap and both skilled and unskilled labour from the country’s large population.
- Availability of natural resources. For example mineral supplies like gold, lead, iron ore, uranium, manganese, Zinc, Bauxite, Tin, Chromium, Tungsten, Phosphate etc. some of these resources are in plenty and are exported to earn forex.
- Development of hydro-electricity has boosted industrialization. Coal is also available from the Witwatersrand.
- Development of transport and communication. Railway lines, water and road network have been improved thus opening the resources for the exploitation and for transportation of manufactured goods. Air transport is also well developed thus enhancing business operations.
- Availability of capital from her trade in other materials.
- Government support. The government has adopted sound economic policies that promote industrialization. For example imposing heavy tariffs on the imported commodities as a means of protecting local industries, encouraging foreign entrepreneurs to invest in the country and encouraging local investors.
- South Africa is endowed with a variety of tourist attractions like wildlife which boost the tourism industry.
- Large Internal and external markets. Increased Trade between South Africa and other countries especially after end of the apartheid rule has led to growth of external market to supplement the available market locally.
Challenges facing industrialization in South Africa.
- Long periods of apartheid rule was accompanied with sometimes violent resistance and struggle for majority rule which created an atmosphere not conducive for investment
- The country suffered long periods of economic sanctions imposed by the United Nations between 1948 and 1994 which affected her manufactured goods that could not access external markets.
- There were rampant industrial strikes in the country, during the apartheid regime which affected industrialization.
- The HIV and AIDS scourge has ravaged the country’s labour force thus seriously undermining the industrial efforts.
- There is stiff completion from the industrialized nations in Western Europe that produce high quality products and have an advanced marketing system for their goods.
- High levels of insecurity which, at times, discourages would-be foreign investors.
- High levels of poverty in South Africa mean low purchasing power. Manufactured goods perform poorly locally.
Factors that facilitated India’s industrialization.
- Existence of good industrial base from the textile and leather industries. The British governor Lord Dalhousie also laid a good foundation for industrialization by promoting road construction and cotton growing.
- Also cottage industries like smithing and textiles existed in India long before colonialism. This formed the basis for modern industries
- Availability of Cheap and both skilled and unskilled labour from the country’s large population which is almost at a billion mark
- Existence of raw materials. For example mineral supplies like iron ore, manganese and coal allowed development of heavy industries. Cotton was also available as a textile industry raw material
- Development of energy sources like coal and hydro-electricity has boosted industrialization. Other sources of energy include oil, natural gas and nuclear energy..
- Development of transport and communication. The great trunk road from Calcutta to Punjab and sea transport development has led to resource exploitation and transportation of manufactured goods. Communication services have also been greatly improved.
- Good technical and scientific education available in India has produced experts who are in great demand in industry and agriculture.
- Availability of capital from her trading contacts with European countries like Portugal, Britain, France and Holland.
- Good national development plans. In the first five-year development plan of 1951, the government adopted sound economic policies that prioritized agriculture especially modern farming. The second phase emphasized industrialization, especially decentralization if industries to high population areas where labour and market existed.
- The government has imposed protective tariffs on the imported commodities as a means of protecting local industries.
- Political stability. India has enjoyed a long period of political stability since her independence thus giving investors’ confidence.
- Development of banking in India has enabled farmers and industrialists to access credit facilities.
Challenges facing industrialization in India.
- Competition from goods manufactured in the developed countries; the developed nations produce goods of high quality than those manufactured by the Indian industries.
- High population in India requires that the government spare enough capital to feed the people. The government spends a lot of revenue in developing agriculture to feed her people.
- High poverty levels i.e. majority of the Indian population is poor and do not have adequate purchasing power for her manufactured goods/ the local market is therefore limited.
- Lack of efficient communication and transportation infrastructure hence poor movement of goods and labour.
- Natural calamities e.g. drought and floods that destroy raw materials for industries.
- Political conflicts e.g. with neighboring Pakistan, and the civil unrest hinders industrial development.