Functions of the National Land Commission.
- It manages public land on behalf of the national and county governments.
- It advises the national government on a comprehensive programme for land registration throughout the country.
- It investigates present and past historical injustices, as a result of a complaint or on its on initiative, and recommends appropriate action.
- It has a duty to encourage the use of traditional methods of dispute resolution in land conflicts.
- It recommends the national land policy to the national government.
- It assesses tax on land and premiums on immovable property in any area designated by law.
- It monitors land use planning throughout the country.
Development in agriculture since independence
The Agricultural development corporation (ADC) was set up to manage large scale farms that were established by the government in western, Rift Valley and Coast provinces. Such farms specialize in production of seeds to be used by farmers for planting. They also specialize in production of high quality dairy and beef cattle in Kenya.
The government also established the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) in Muguga near Kikuyu to assist in identifying good crop breeds for different types of soils.
Irrigation Schemes were expanded in the marginal areas. For example. Mea (central), Bura (coast), Ahero (Nyanza) and Perkerra (central)
The government created development authorities to effectively manage water catchment areas. For example, TARDA, KVDA and LBDA
Challenges facing Kenya’s agricultural sector.
- The 1984 drought and famine in various parts of the country occasioning supply of relief food to the affected regions.
- Rapid increase in population which is not at pace with the rate of increase in agricultural production.
- From the late 1970s, the world market prices of agricultural commodities fell drastically yet the inputs remained expensive.
- Corruption and mismanagement of the cooperatives leading to meager earnings for key cash crops in Kenya.
- Grabbing of research land by corrupt government officials has affected the operations of the research institutes.
- The problem of poor infrastructure in the country sometimes discourages farmers especially during the rainy season.
- Ethnic clashes in Molo in 1991-1992, Likoni in 1997 and Mahi Mahiu in 2005 plus the post election violence in 2008 discouraged farmers from intense farming due to insecurity.
- Poor technology hassled to low yields. People in Kenya still rely on natural rains for agriculture instead of using irrigation. Others use primitive traditional tools in cultivation.
- The problem of pests that destroy the farm yields before reaching the factory.
- Competition from COMESA member states and from the more industrialized powers such as the European Union and USA often frustrate Kenyan farmers.
Industrial developments in Kenya since independence
Factors that facilitated industrial development in Kenya since the colonial era
- The existence of raw materials, such as trona (soda ash) at lake Magadi, fluorspar at Kerio Valley and lime in several parts of the country.
- Existence of fish resource from numerous water bodies has promoted the fish-processing industry.
- Existence of expansive forests which provide timber needed in the furniture industry.
- The rich scenery, e.g Mt. Kenya, Mt. Elgon, the Aberdares and rich wildlife have promoted the tourism industry.
- Kenya’s rivers have enough water for production of HEP.
- Increase in population since the colonial period ensured supply of labour and the market required for industries to flourish.
- The transport and communication infrastructure have provided the necessary link between the material producing zones , industries and markets..
- Existence of rich agricultural lands producing raw materials such as coffee, tea, sugarcane, sisal and fruits
Measures taken by the Kenyan government to promote industrial development since independence
- The government engaged on decentralization programmes to spur development in new areas. Industries were established in rural areas.
- The government has embarked on the programmes of funding new markets for industrial products.
- Infrastructure was improved through establishment of more roads, railways and improvement of water transport, to-transport raw materials labour and goods.
- Power concerns were addressed through construction of the Seven Forks Dam to supplement power from neighboring Uganda.
- Favourable government policies have been put in place to attract investors.
- The government has put in place measures to reduce imports in order to protect local infant industries. E.g discriminative tariffs were introduced.
- The government encouraged and assisted in giving capital for industrial development through development of the co-operative movement, funding through Industrial and Commercial Development Corporation(ICDC) , the Development Finance Company of Kenya.(DFCK) and the Industrial Development Bank.
- The government has ensured political stability in the country, which is an important factor in industrial development.
Factors that have hindered industrial development in Kenya
- The problem of multi nationals whose interests do not favour Kenya’s progress.
- Multi-national co-operation repatriate capital to their own home countries
- There is shortage of strategic raw materials e.g. petroleum, diamond. Cotton for textile industries. Many industrial companies use imported raw materials. c) Foreigners, who pass policies not friendly to the country, hold managerial positions in industries.
- Mismanagement of major industries and lack of transparency I parastatals.
- Over concentration of industries in few areas leading to negligence of other areas. It also has led to related problems of industrial concentration like the social ills.
- Competition from the industrialized nations who dominate the market and produce high quality goods.
- Poverty limits industrialization. A poor population means a small domestic market thus hindering industrial development.
- Products are produced with low technology hence small quantities.
Social Development and challenges since independence.
- Constitutional amendments were made in 1975 to give Kiswahili a respectable position in the country.
- Several educational Commissions were set up to streamline education.
- The Harambee strategy was employed to expand educational facilities.
- The Kenya Education Commission (1964) (The Ominde commission) that recommended overhaul of curriculum to make it relevant.
- The National Committee on Education Objectives and policies- Gachathi commission (1976) that looked into he possibility of setting up a second university
- Presidential Working Party on the Second University- The Mackey commission (1982) that established the 8-4-4 system and proposed emphasis of vocational subjects such as art and craft, music, agriculture and Home science
- The Kamunge commission (1988) which recommended cost-sharing in education
- The Koech commission (1999) which recommended reintroduction of A-level system in form of Totally Integrated Quality Education and Training.
Main developments in education in Kenya since independence
Several education commissions were set up to streamline education.
The harambee strategy was employed to expand education facilities. Many schools were built.
In 1980, the government took over the responsibility of providing pre-primary education.
In the 1990s, the government in collaboration with UNICEF launched a programme to promote early childhood education.
By1998, the total number of students in the various universities was over 40,000. In 1969, the ministry of education took over the administration of primary education from local government, this witnessed increased enrolment.
In 1978, the government introduced the school milk programme to encourage children especially in drought prone areas to go to school.
The programme stalled in 1990 but had achieved higher enrolment in schools.
The Ministry of education launched school feeding programme, targeting dry areas.
In 2002, the NARC government introduced the ‘Free Primary Education’ policy.
Further reading be done from evolving world on Elementary education and Tertiary education in Kenya
Measures taken to improve the health sector in postcolonial Kenya
- The ministry of health was created to oversee health matters.
- Expansion of health facilities through harambee and donor funds e.g. Nyanza Provincial hospital (Russian Hospital)
- Many health training institutions were started e.g. Medical training colleges
- Improvement in hygiene through provision of piped water.
- Establishment of several research institutions on human diseases e.g. KEMRI
- Provision of more basic education in order to uplift hygiene standards in the society.
- Provision of free antiretroviral and antimalarial drugs.
Major challenges facing the Health sector in Kenya.
- Increase in population has posed major challenges to the government in the provision of healthcare services to its citizens. There has been a challenge of inadequate doctors and medical facilities.
- The cost- sharing policy introduced in the 1980s to help buy medicine and other equipment has prevented the poor from going to the hospitals.
- The spread of HIV and AIDS and other diseases such as Diabetes and Heart diseases has worsened the situation.
- Cultural practices like Female mutilation have made provision of medical services more challenging.
- Pollution of the environment has increased allergy-related ailments, many of which have no cure.
- Poverty and malnutrition render many people vulnerable to diseases.
- Illegal abortion and early pregnancies endanger the lives of mothers.
- High rate of accidents and injuries , especially on roads.
Ways through which the government has encouraged the preservation of African culture since independence.
- Creation of the ministry of culture and social services. The ministry promotes cultural and social values.
- The syllabus has been tailored to include cultural studies.
- Inclusion of music as a subject in the national curriculum.
- The government has encouraged music/drama festivals on an annual basis as way of promoting cultural exchange.
- The government has encouraged intermarriage between different ethnic groups.
- The government has developed cultural heritage centre at the Bomas of Kenya, National Archives and Museums.
- Schools have been encouraged to admit people from different communities.
- Allowing the media houses to play traditional music/dance.